From Correlation to Causation through stories and math

Correlation and causation are two concepts that people often mixup in their minds. I must admit that I myself have been guilty about this, and it unlikely that I would ever entirely grow out of it as it is wired deeply into our psychology. Let me use this article to briefly emphasise what the concepts of correlation and causation means, some interesting stories that have emerged from people misunderstanding these concepts and an algorithm that attempts to find causal relationship using correlation information. Here is a story that I heard a professor of mine, Prof. Dr. Ernst-Jan Camiel Wit, tell us during a lecture. There was a school that was involved in a study to see if providing free mid-day meals to students, which they could choose to be subscribed to this or not. At the end of the study, both the students who subscribed to it and did not where tested for different health indicators. It was observed that the students who chose to have meals from the programme had poorer health

First impression of Lugano - Mindblowing

I started off from Zurich at around 7.30 in the morning. There was a direct train to Lugano from Zurich HB. I vaguely remember my internet searches on the cost to travel from Zurich to Lugano via train to be about 30 CHF, but in reality, taking the ticket from the station, it costed me double of that. I don't know if the tickets have surge prices or something. Anyway, the journey was nice as I was able to see some beautiful places along the way and I think I had a chance to go through Gotthard Base Tunnel, which is the longest tunnel in the world.

Getting down at Lugano station and looking out, I saw one of the most beatiful scene that I have ever seen. I am not sure if I could describe that properly in words, nor do I think the following photograph that I took justifies how it looked to me in person.

I had to walk down a lot of stairs from here with the heavy bags that I had, only to realize that I made a wrong turn at some point. I was informed that instead of going back up, it would be better to just climb down the entire stairs and take the sidewalks of the road so that I can easily roll the trolley bag instead of carrying it. The road was a bit longer, but I understand that it was the better option.

I reached my apartment by around 11.30 AM, made some porridge (I had brought some broken rice from my hometown) for myself and slept for a few hours.

I was thinking about going to the Lidl nearby, but it has been raining and I forgot to bring an umbrella. I waited till my roommate arrived to take his umbrella to go out. He arrived at around 8.40 PM and he told me that there is a Migros supermarket a little closer than the Lidl, and he told me that both would close by 9 PM. I brisk walked till Migros only to find out that it closes at 7 PM. I had to do with another bowl of porridge for dinner.

The fact that the supermarkets close at such an early hour is news to me. I hope I would have this information in my mind everytime I run out of groceries.


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